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A patient is diagnosed with hereditary coagulopathy that is characterised by factor VIII deficiency. Specify the phase of blood clotting during which coagulation will be disrupted in the given case:
In a village a case of anthrax has been registered. Medical services began epidemiologically indicated specific prophylaxis of population against anthrax. What preparation was used for this purpose?
Genetically engineered vaccine
In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:
Destruction of the vestibular nuclei of Deiters
Stimulation of the otolithic vestibular receptors
Stimulation of the vestibular nuclei of Deiters
Stimulation of the vestibulocochlear nerve
Stimulation of the ampullar vestibular receptors
During blood transfusion a patient has developed intravascular erythrocyte hemolysis. What kind of hypersensitivity does the patient have?
II type (antibody-dependent)
I type (anaphylactic)
III type (immune complex)
IV type (cellular cytotoxicity)
IV type (granulomatosis)
A 26-year-old female patient with bronchitis has been administered a broad spectrum antibiotic as a causal treatment drug. Specify this drug:
A patient has been given atropine sulfate for rapid relief of spastic colon symptoms. The use of this drug is contraindicated during the followng disease:
A 2-year-old boy is diagnosed with Down syndrome. What chromosomal changes may be the cause of this disease?
After a road accident a victim has tachycardia, arterial blood pressure 130/90 mm Hg, tachypnoe, the skin is pale and dry, excitation of central nervous system is observed. What shock stage is the patient most likely in?
Preshock (compensation stage)
During a surgery for femoral hernia a surgeon operates within the boundaries of femoral trigone. What structure makes up its upper margin?
A patient has arterial hypertension. What long-acting drug from the group of calcium channel blockers should be prescribed?
Increased HDL levels decrease the risk of atherosclerosis. What is the mechanism of HDL anti-atherogenic action?
They remove cholesterol from tissues
They supply tissues with cholesterol
They are involved in the breakdown of cholesterol
They activate the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids
They promote absorption of cholesterol in the intestine
It has been found out that one of a pesticide components is sodium arsenate that blocks lipoic acid. Which enzyme activity is impaired by this pesticide?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
A drycleaner’s worker has been found to have hepatic steatosis. This pathology can be caused by the disruption of synthesis of the following substance:
As a result of a craniocerebral injury, a patient has a decreased skin sensitivity. What area of the cerebral cortex is likely to be damaged?
Posterior central gyrus
Anterior central gyrus
Diabetic nephropathy with uremia has developed in a patient with pancreatic diabetes. The velocity of glomerular filtration is 9 ml/min. What mechanism of a decrease in glomerular filtration velocity and chronic renal failure development is most likely in the case of this patient?
Reduction of active nephron mass
Decrease in systemic arterial pressure
Obstruction of nephron tubules with hyaline casts
A 40-year-old patient has ulcer perforation in the posterior wall of stomach. What anatomical structure will blood and stomach content leak to?
Right lateral channel (canalis lateralis dexter)
Left lateral channel (canalis lateralis sinister)
Angiocardiography of a 60-year-old male patient revealed constriction of a vessel located in the left coronary sulcus of the heart. What is the pathological vessel called?
Ramus interventricularis posterior
A. coronaria dextra
Ramus interventricularis anterior
Those organisms which in the process of evolution failed to develop protection from H2O2 can exist only in anaerobic conditions. Which of the following enzymes can break hydrogen peroxide down?
Peroxidase and catalase
Oxygenase and hydroxylase
Cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome B5
Oxygenase and catalase
A patient complains of pain in the right lateral abdomen. Palpation revealed a dense, immobile, tumorlike formation. A tumor is likely to be found in the following part of the digestive tube:
A patient complaining of pain in the left shoulder-blade region has been diagnosed with miocardial infarction. What kind of pain does the patient have?
A patient has a critical impairment of protein, fat and hydrocarbon digestion. Most likely it has been caused by low secretion of the following digestive juice:
A female patient has facial neuritis that has caused mimetic paralysis and hearing impairment. Hearing impairment results from the paralysis of the following muscle:
Anterior auricular muscle
Superior auricular muscle
Posterior auricular muscle
A 22-year-old female student consulted a physician about fever up to 38oC, weakness, sore throat. Objectively: there is white coating of the tongue. What histological structures of the tongue are involved in the formation of this coating?
Epithelium of the filiform papillae
Epithelium of the foliate papillae
Epithelium of the fungiform papillae
Epithelium of the circumvallate papillae
Connective-tissue base of all the lingual papillae
A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:
Inspiratory reserve volume
Expiratory reserve volume
Functional residual lung capacity
The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:
Prolonged fasting causes hypoglycemia which is amplified by alcohol consumption, as the following process is inhibited:
A 39-year-old female patient with a history of diabetes was hospitalized in a precomatose state for diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition had been caused by an increase in the following metabolite level:
A 37-year-old female patient complains of headache, vertigo, troubled sleep, numbness of limbs. For the last 6 years she has been working at the gas-discharge lamp-producing factory in the lead-processing shop. Blood test findings: low hemoglobin and RBC level, serum iron concentration exceeds the norm by several times. Specify the type of anemia:
Iron refractory anemia
During an animal experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?
A patient takes cholagogues. What other process besides biliary excretion will be stimulated?
Gastric juice secretion
Pancreatic juice secretion
Gastric motor activity
A 3-year-old child with meningeal symptoms died. Postmortem macroscopy of the pia matter revealed miliary nodules which were microscopically represented by a focus of caseous necrosis with masses of epithelioid and lymphoid cells with some crescent-shaped large cells inbetween having peripheral nuclei. Specify the type of meningitis in the child:
A patient with homogentisuria has signs of arthritis, ochronosis. In this case, the pain in the joints is associated with the deposition of:
A patient with hereditary hyperammonemia due to a disorder of ornithine cycle has developed secondary orotaciduria. The increased synthesis of orotic acid is caused by an increase in the following metabolite of ornithine cycle:
Amniocentesis revealed two sex chromatin bodies (Barr bodies) in each cell of the sample. What disease is this character typical for?
A 49-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis was likely to develop pancreatic necrosis, while active pancreatic proteases were absorbed into the blood stream and tissue proteins broke up. What protective factors of the body can inhibit these processes?
A 16-year-old female patient has fainted after quickly changing her body position from horizontal to vertical one. Which process from the ones listed below has caused the loss of consciousness in the first place?
Decreasing venous return
Increasing venous return
Increasing central venous pressure
Decreasing oncotic pressure of blood plasma
Increasing arterial pressure
A 53-year-old male patient complains of acute pain in the right hypochondrium. Objective examination revealed scleral icterus. Laboratory tests revealed increased ALT activity, and stercobilin was not detected in the stool. What disease is characterized by these symptoms?
A child patient has dry cough. What non-narcotic antitussive drug will relieve the patient’s condition?
Althaea officinalis root extract
A patient complains of acute pain attacks in the right lumbar region. During examination the nephrolithic obturation of the right ureter in the region between its abdominal and pelvic segments has been detected. What anatomical boundary exists between those two segments?
When measuring total muscle action potential it was revealed that it was subject to the power-law relationship. The reason for this is that individual muscle fibers differ in:
Critical level of depolarization
A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greately affected by the following substance:
A patient is diagnosed with iron- deficiency sideroachrestic anemia, progression of which is characterised by skin hyperpigmentation, pigmentary cirrhosis, heart and pancreas affection. Iron level in the blood serum is increased. What disorder of iron metabolism causes this disease?
Failure to assimilate iron leading to iron accumulation in tissues
Excessive iron intake with food
Disorder of iron absorption in bowels
Increased iron assimilation by body
Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardi-omyocytes permitted an increase in:
Calcium ion entry
Calcium ion exit
Potassium ion exit
Potassium ion entry
Calcium and potassium ion exit
According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’s urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?
Decreased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes
Increased activity of glucose reabsorption enzymes
Exceeded glucose reabsorption threshold
Increased glucose secretion
Increased glucose filtration
As a result of past encephalitis, a male patient has developed an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the right lateral ventricle. What can be the cause of this condition?
Closure of right interventricular foramen
Closure of left interventricular foramen
Atresia of tubus medullaris
Atresia of sylvian aqueduct
Atresia of the fourth ventricle foramina
Parents of 5-year-old child report him o have frequent colds that develop into pneumonias, presence of purulent rashes on the skin. Laboratory tests have revealed the following: absence of immunoglobulins of any type, and naked cells are absent from the lymph nodes punctate. What kind of immune disorder is it?
X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia (Bruton type agammaglobulinemia)
Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinaemia (Swiss type)
A 3-year-old child has continuous fever, lymph nodes are enlarged, the amount of lymphocytes in blood is significantly increased. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed antigen of Epstein-Barr virus. What diagnosis can be made based on the information given above?
Generalized infection caused by herpes-zoster
A microslide contains the preparation of a gland composed of several secretory saccule-shaped parts that open in the common excretory duct. What gland is it?
Simple branched alveolar gland
Compound branched alveolar gland
Simple unbranched alveolar gland
Compound unbranched alveolar gland
Simple branched tubular gland
A patient intending to undergo a gender reassignment surgery has been admitted to a specialised clinic. In the course of examination both male and female gonades have been revealed, with male structure of external genitals. What kind of genital maldevelopment has the patient?
Ectopia of testis
An 18-year-old male has been diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. Examination revealed a developmental disorder of connective tissue and eye lens structure, abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, arachnodactylia. What genetic phenomenon has caused the development of this disease?