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Due to the use of poor-quality measles vaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child developed an autoimmune renal injury. The urine was found to contain macromolecular proteins. What process of urine formation was disturbed?
Reabsorption and secretion
Secretion and filtration
A 26-year-old female patient with bronchitis has been administered a broad spectrum antibiotic as a causal treatment drug. Specify this drug:
During ventricular systole the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:
There is no correct answer
A patient consulted a physician about chest pain, cough, fever. Roentgenography of lungs revealed eosinophilic infiltrates which were found to contain the larvae. What kind of helminthiasis are these presentations typical for?
A patient has arterial hypertension. What long-acting drug from the group of calcium channel blockers should be prescribed?
A 3-year-old child has eaten some strawberries. Soon he developed a rash and itching. What was found in the child’s leukogram?
A patient complains of pain in the right lateral abdomen. Palpation revealed a dense, immobile, tumorlike formation. A tumor is likely to be found in the following part of the digestive tube:
Amniocentesis revealed two sex chromatin bodies (Barr bodies) in each cell of the sample. What disease is this character typical for?
An 18-year-old male has been diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. Examination revealed a developmental disorder of connective tissue and eye lens structure, abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, arachnodactylia. What genetic phenomenon has caused the development of this disease?
A 67-year-old male patient consumes eggs, pork fat, butter, milk and meat. Blood test results: cholesterol - 12,3 mmol/l, total lipids - 8,2 g/l, increased low-density lipoprotein fraction (LDL). What type of hyperlipoproteinemia is observed in the patient?
Hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa
Hyperlipoproteinemia type I
Hyperlipoproteinemia type IIb
Hyperlipoproteinemia type IV
In course of an experiment there has been an increase in the nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by an increase in the concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:
K+ and Cl-
K + and Na+
Ca2+ and Cl
Examination of the duodenal contents revealed some pear-shaped protozoa with two nuclei and four pairs of flagella. The organisms had also two axostyles between the nuclei and a ventral adhesive disc. What protozoan representative was found in the patient?
Administration of doxycycline hydrochloride caused an imbalance of the symbiotic intestinal microflora. Specify the kind of imbalance caused by the antibiotic therapy:
A 40-year-old patient with the progressing staphylococcal purulent periodontitis developed purulent inflammation of bone marrow spaces of the alveolar process, and then of the body of mandible. Microscopy revealed thinning of bone trabeculae, foci of necrosis, bone sequesters surrounded by the connective tissue capsule. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Chronic fibrous periostitis
The temperature in a production room is 36oC. Relative air humidity is 80%. Under these conditions the human body transfers heat mainly through:
A hospitalized patient bitten by a rabid animal has an avulsive wound of shin. What kind of vaccine must be given to prevent rabies?
At autopsy the occipital lobe of brain was found to have a cavity 2,5x1,5 cm large filled with a transparent liquid. The cavity had smooth brownish walls. What process had developed in the brain?
Cyst on the site of a hemorrhage
Softening of the cerebrocortical grey matter
A cyst on the site of the softening of the cerebrocortical grey matter
A child entering the school for the first time was given Mantoux test in order to determine if there was a need for revaccination. The reaction was negative. What is the meaning of this test result?
No cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis
Availability of cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis
No antibodies to the tuberculosis bacteria
No anti-toxic immunity to tuberculosis
Presence of antibodies to the tuberculosis bacteria
Study of the biopsy material revealed a granuloma consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages with foamy cytoplasm (Mikulicz cells), many hyaline globules. What disease can you think of?
Autopsy of a 78-year-old patient revealed that retroperitoneal tissue was soaked with blood, the abdominal aorta had a sacciform protrusion including a defect with irregular edges. The wall of the aorta was here and there of stone-like density. This is the complication of the following disease:
Glycogen polysaccharide is synthesized from the active form of glucose. The immediate donor of glucose residues during the glycogenesis is:
After the diagnostic tests a 40-year-old male has been referred for the lymphography of the thoracic cavity. The surgeon revealed that the tumor had affected an organ whose lymphatic vessels drain directly into the thoracic duct. Specify this organ:
Left main bronchus
A patient with biliary dyskinesia and constipations has been prescribed a cholagogue having also a laxative effect. What drug has been administered?
It is known that individuals with genetically caused deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may develop RBC hemolysis in response to the administration of some antimalarial drugs. Mani- festation of adverse reactions to drugs is called:
Curariform substances introduced into a human body cause the relaxation of all skeletal muscles. What changes in the neuromuscular synapse cause this phenomenon?
Blockade of N-cholinergic receptors of the synaptic membrane
Impaired acetylcholine release
Blockade of Ca2+ channels of the presynaptic membrane
Impaired cholinesterase synthesis
Depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
A number of diseases can be diagnosed by evaluating activity of blood transaminases. What vitamin is one of cofactors of these enzymes?
After a car accident a 23-year-old male presented to the hospital with a cut wound of the anteromedial region of shoulder and arterial bleeding. Which artery was damaged?
A. profunda brachii
During the operation on the small intestine the surgeon revealed an area of the mucous membrane with a single longitudinal fold among the circular folds. Which portion of the small intestine is this structure typical for?
Pars descendens duodeni
Pars horizontalis duodeni
Pars ascendens duodeni
days after quinsy a 15-year-old child presented with morning facial swelling, high blood pressure, "meat slops"urine. Immunohistological study of a renal biopsy sample revealed deposition of immune complexes on the basement membranes of the capillaries and in the glomerular mesangium. What disease developed in the patient?
Acute interstitial nephritis
A diseased child has a high fever, sore throat, swelling of submandibular lymph nodes. Objectively: pharyngeal mucosa is edematous, moderately hyperemic, the tonsils are enlarged, covered with grayish membrane tightly adhering to the tissues above. Attempts to remove the membrane produce the bleeding defects. What disease are these presentations typical for?
Study of the biopsy material of an embryo revealed a zone of developmental abnormality in a somite. The zone was located close to the endoderm and the notochord. What formations may have abnormal development in case of pregnancy continuation?
Skeletal striated muscle tissue
Cardiac striated muscle tissue
Fibrous connective tissue of skin
A smear of sputum from the patient with suspected lobar pneumonia was stained with the use of the following stains and reagents: solution of gentian violet, Lugol’s solution, 96° alcohol, water magenta. What staining method was applied in this case?
A patient has normally coloured stool including a large amount of free fatty acids. The reason for this is a disturbance of the following process:
Examination of the removed stomach revealed a deep roundish defect with regular edges at the lesser curvature of the antrum. The defect reached the muscular tunic and was 1,5 cm in diameter. Within the defect floor there was a translucent dense area resembling of a hyaline cartilage. What process had developed in the floor of the stomach defect?
By the decarboxylation of glutamate in the CNS an inhibitory mediator is formed. Name it:
Thermometry revealed that the temperature of the exposed skin is by 11,5° lower than the temperature of the adjacent areas covered with clothing from natural fabrics. The reason for this is that the clothes reduce the heat loss through:
A specimen of pia mater includes a vessel whose wall doesn’t have the tunica media, the tunica externa is adherent to the surrounding tissues, the intima is composed of a basement membrane and endothelium. What vessel is it?
Muscular vein with underdeveloped muscular elements
Artery of mixed type
A patient with extensive burns of torso skin exhibits signs of severe intoxication. What stage of the burn disease is this typical for?
As a result of a craniocerebral injury a patient has a decreased skin sensitivity. What area of the cerebral cortex may be damaged?
Posterior central gyrus
Anterior central gyrus
A histological specimen of the eyeball shows a biconvex structure connected to the ciliary body by the fibers of the Zinn’s zonule and covered with a transparent capsule. Name this structure:
A comatose patient was taken to the hospital. He has a history of diabetes mellitus. Objectively: Kussmaul breathing, low blood pressure, acetone odor of breath. After the emergency treatment the patient’s condition improved. What drug had been administered to the patient?
In order to stimulate breathing in a child born with asphyxia, the doctor gave him a drug injection into the umbilical vein. What drug might have been injected?
A patient underwent biopsy of the soft palate arches for a suspected tumor (macroscopy revealed an ulcer with a dense floor). Study of the biopsy material revealed mucosal necrosis with infiltration of lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, plasma cells, single neutrophils in the submucosa. There were also apparent signs of endovasculitis and perivasculitis. The described changes are typical for:
Necrotizing ulcerative Vincent stomatitis
Healthy parents with unremarkable family history have the child with multiple developmental defects. Cytogenetic analysis revealed the trisomy 13 in the somatic cells (Patau syndrome). What phenomenon has caused the defects?
A specimen shows an organ covered with the connective tissue capsule with trabeculae radiating inward the organ. There is also cortex containing some lymph nodules, and medullary cords made of lymphoid cells. What organ is under study?
Red bone marrow
A 25-year-old patient consulted a doctor about dysmenorrhea and infertility. Examination revealed that the patient was 145 cm high and had underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, alar folds on the neck. Cytological study didn’t reveal any Barr bodies in the somatic cells. What diagnosis was made?
Trisomy X syndrome
To prevent attacks of acute pancreatitis a doctor prescribed the patient trasylol (contrycal, gordox), which is an inhibitor of:
A patient died from progressive heart failure. Autopsy revealed that the heart was enlarged in diameter, flabby. The muscle section exhibited irregular blood supply. Histological study of myocardium revealed hyperemia, the stroma was found to have lymphohistiocytic infiltrates with degeneration of cardiomyocytes. The revealed morphological changes are indicative of:
Non-purulent interstitial myocarditis
A 13-year-old teenager underwent X-ray examination of the hip joint. Examination revealed a 3 mm wide radiolucent zone between the head and the shaft of femur. This situation should be evaluated as:
Normal (incomplete process of ossification)
Fracture of the femoral neck
Fissured fracture of the femoral neck
Dislocation of the femoral head
Radiographic film artifact
A surgeon examined the patient and found the injury of the upper third of the kidney. Considering the syntopy of the left kidney, the intactness of the following organ should be checked at the same time: