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Emotional stress causes activation of hormon-sensitive triglyceride lipase in the adipocytes. What secondary mediator takes part in this process?
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
Ions of Ca2+
Surface with an intact toad on it was inclined to the right. Tone of extensor muscles became reflectory higher due to the activation of the following receptors:
Vestibuloreceptors of utricle and saccule
Vestibuloreceptors of semicircular ducts
Mechanoreceptors of foot skin
Photoreceptors of retina
A 70 year old female patient was diagnosed with fracture of left femoral neck accompanied by disruption of ligament of head of femur. The branch of the following artery is damaged:
ECG of a patient shows prolongation of T-wave. This is caused by deceleration in ventricles of:
Depolarization and repolarization
A 44 year old woman complains of general weakness, heart pain, significant increase of body weight. Objectively: moon face, hirsutism, AP is 165/100 mm Hg, height - 164 cm, weight - 103 kg; the fat is mostly accumulated on her neck, thoracic girdle, belly. What is the main pathogenetic mechanism of obesity?
Increased production of glucocorticoids
Reduced production of thyroid hormones
Increased insulin production
Reduced glucagon production
Increased mineralocorticoid production
Vitamin A together with specific cytoreceptors penetrates through the nuclear membranes, induces transcription processes that stimulate growth and differentiation of cells. This biological function is realized by the following form of vitamin A:
In order to determine toxigenicity of diphtheria bacilli a strip of filter paper impregnated with antitoxic diphtherial serum was put on the dense nutrient medium. There were also inoculated a mi-crobal culture under examination and a strain that is known to be toxigenic. If the microbal culture under examination produces exotoxin, this wil result in formation of:
Zones of diffuse opacification
Zones of lecithovitellinous activity
A 63 year old male patient who had been suffering from chronic diffuse obstructive disease, pulmonary emphysema, for 15 years died from cardiac insufficiency. Autopsy revealed nutmeg liver cirrhosis, cyanotic induration of kidneys and spleen, ascites, edemata of lower limbs. These changes of internal organs are typical for the following disease:
Chronic right-ventricular insufficiency
Acute right-ventricular insufficiency
Chronic left-ventricular insufficiency
Acute left-ventricular insufficiency
General cardiac insufficiency
Atria of an experimental animal were superdistended by blood that resulted in decreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules. This can be explained by the influence of the following factor upon kidneys:
A 56 year old patient suffering from cardiac insufficiency has edema of feet and shins, edematous skin is pale and cold. What is the leding mechanism of edema pathogenesis?
Rise of hydrostatic pressure in venules
Drop of oncotic pessure in capillaries
Increase of capillary permeability
Disorder of lymph outflow
Positive water balance
It is known that the gene responsible for development of blood groups according to AB0 system has three allele variants. If a man has IV blood group, it can be explained by the following variability form:
A patient complains about impaired evacuatory function of stomach (longterm retention of food in stomach). Examination revealed a tumour of initial part of duodenum. Specify localization of the tumour:
Flexura duodeni inferior
Autopsy of a 17 year old girl who died from pulmonary failure revealed a small area of caseous necrosis in the inferior lobe of the right lung, and occurences of caseous necrosis in the bronchopulmonary, bronchial and bi-furcational lymph nodes. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?
Hematogenous progression of primary tuberculosis
Hematogenous tuberculosis with predominant lung affection
Caseous pneumonia under secondary tuberculosis
An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitement impulses with frequency of 60 times per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart structure:
During influenza epidemic 40% of pupils who didn’t go in for sports were affected by the disease, and among the pupils who regularly did physical exercises this index was only 20%. What adaptati-ve mechanisms determined such a low sickness rate of pupils participating in the sports?
A patient suffers from stenocardia and takes isosorbide mononitrate. He was prescribed a complementary drug with disaggregating effect. What drug is it?
A 45 year old man consulted a doctor about a plaque-like formation on his neck. Histological examination of a skin bi-optate revealed clusters of round and oval tumour cells with a narrow border of basophilic cytoplasm resembling of cells of basal epidermal layer. What tumour is it?
Basal cell carcinoma
A 66 year old female patient got intravenous injection of magnesium sulfate solution for the purpose of elimination of hypertensive crisis. But arterial pressure didn’t go down and after repeated introduction of the same preparation there appered sluggishness, slow response, inhibition of consciousness and respiration. What preparation is antagonist of magnesium sulfate and can eliminate symptoms of its overdose?
A 64 year old woman has impairment of twilight vision (hemeralopy). What vitamin should be recommended in the first place?
A patient underwent appendectomy. In the postoperative period he has been taking an antibiotic. The patient complains about hearing impairment and vestibular disorders. What group of antibiotics has such by-effects?
A patient suffering from stenocardia was taking nitroglycerine which caused restoration of blood supply of myocardium and relieved pain in the cardiac area. What intracellular mechanism provides restoration of energy supply of insulted cells?
Intensification of ATP resynthesis
Reduction of ATP resynthesis
Increased permeability of membranes
Intensification of oxygen transporting into the cell
Intensification of RNA generation
A 50 year old patient has been taking treatment thrice for the last 6 months because of fractures caused by domestic accidents. Microscopical examination of bony tissue revealed foci of lacunar resolution, giant-cell granulomas in the tumour-like formations, cysts. Bony tissue was substituted by fibrous connective tissue. Examination revealed also adenoma of parathyroid gland and hypercalcemia. What is the most probable diagnosis?
Examination of a child who frequently suffers from infectious diseases revealed that IgG concentration in blood serum was 10 times less than normal, IgA and IgM concentration was also significantly reduced. Analysis showed also lack of B-lymphocytes and plasmocytes. What disease are these symptoms typical for?
Di George syndrome
Examination of a 42 year old patient revealed a tumour of adenohypophysis. Objectively: the patient’s weight is 117 kg, he has moon-like hyperemic face, red-blue striae of skin distension on his belly. Osteoporosis and muscle dystrophy are present. AP is 210/140 mm Hg. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A patient got an injury of spinal marrow in a road accident that caused loss of tactile sensation, posture sense, vibration sense. What conduction tracts are damaged?
Fascicle of Goll and cuneate fascicle
Anterior spinocerebellar tract
A patient suffers from pulmonary tuberculosis. During treatment neuritis of visual nerve arose. What drug has caused this by-effect?
A 4 year old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets, vitamin D concentration in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?
Impaired synthesis of calcitriol
Increased excretion of calcium
Hyperfunction of parathyroid glands
Hypofunction of parathyroid glands
Lack of calcium in food
A man was intoxicated with mushrooms. They contain muscarine that stimulates muscarinic cholinoreceptors. What symptoms signalize intoxication with inedible mushrooms?
Increased heart rate
Rise of arterial pressure
A 50 year old patient underwent resection of tumour of large intestine wall. Microscopically it presents itself as fascicles of divergent collagen fibers of different thickness and form and some monomorphous fusiform cells that are irregularly distributed among the fibers. Cellular atypia is not evident. What tumour is it?
A cell at the stage of mitosis anaphase was stimulated by colchicine that inhibits chromosome separation to the poles. What type of mutation will be caused?
A bacteriological laboratory received sputum sample of a patient suffering from tuberculosis. Bacterioscopic examination of smears and detection of tuberculosis bacillus can be realized by one of enrichment methods that involves processing of sputum only with solution of caustic soda. What is this method called?
Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole’s wall presents a big cell. Its cytoplasm has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil lamellated corpuscles. What is the main function of this cell?
It produces surfactant
It is a component of blood-air barrier
It warms the air
It purifies the air
It absorbs microorganisms
A child is pale, pastose, muscular tissue is bad developed, lymph nodes are enlarged. He often suffers from angina and pharyngitis, blood has signs of lymphocytosis. The child is also predisposed to autoallergic diseases. What type of diathesis can be presumed in this case?
One of sections of central nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among them there are cells of the following forms: stellate, fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central nervous system is this structure typical for?
Cortex of cerebrum
During examination of a patient a dentist revealed a lot of "white spots zones of enamel demineralization. What microorganisms take part in the development of this process?
Characteristic sign of glycogenosis is muscle pain during physical work. Blood examination reveals usually hypoglycemia. This pathology is caused by congenital deficiency of the following enzyme:
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
During an operation a patient got injection of muscle relaxant dithylinum. Relaxation of skeletal muscles and inhibition of respiration lasted two hours. This condition was caused by absence of the following enzyme in blood serum:
A 60 year old patient has impaired perception of high-frequency sounds. These changes were caused by damage of the following auditory analyzer structures:
Main cochlea membrane near the oval window
Main cochlea membrane near the helicotrema
Middle ear muscles
Students who are taking examinations often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state is the realization of the following reflexes:
An experimantal animal that was kept on protein-free diet developed fatty liver infiltration, in particular as a result of deficiency of methylating agents. This is caused by disturbed generation of the following metabolite:
Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the pharynx of a diphtheria suspect revealed bacilli with volutine granules. What etiotropic drug should be chosen in this case?
Antidiphtheritic antitoxic serum
A concentrated solution of sodium chloride was intravenously injected to an animal. This caused decreased reabsorption of sodium ions in the renal tubules. It is the result of the following changes of hormonal secretion:
Reduction of atrial natriuretic factor
A patient working at a pig farm complains about paroxysmal abdominal pain, liquid feces with admixtures of mucus and blood, headache, weakness, fever. Examination of large intestine revealed ulcers from 1 mm up to several cm large, feces contained oval unicellular organisms with cilia. What disease should be suspected?
During hypersensitivity test a patient got subcutaneous injection of an antigen which caused reddening of skin, edema, pain as a result of histamine action. This biogenic amine is generated as a result of transformation of the following histidine amino acid:
A patient complained about dizziness, memory impairment, periodical convulsions. It was revealed that these changes were caused by a product of decarboxylation of glutamic acid. Name this product:
Study of conversion of a food colouring agent revealed that neutralization of this xenobiotic takes place only in one phase - microsomal oxydation. Name a component of this phase:
Cytogenetic examination of a patient with reproductive dysfunction revealed normal karyotype 46 XY in some cells, but most cells have karyotype of Klinefelter’s syndrome - 47 XXY. Such cell heterogeni-ty is called:
Surgical approach to the thyroid gland from the transverse (collar) approach involves opening of interaponeurot suprasternal space. What anatomic structure localized in this space is dangerous to be damaged?
Jugular venous arch
External jugular vein
Inferior thyroid arthery
Superior thyroid arthery
During preparation of a patient to a heart surgery it was necessary to measure pressure in heart chambers. In one of them pressure varied from 0 mm Hg up to 120 mm Hg within one cardiac cycle. What heart chamber is it?
A patient has difficulties with hand movement. Examination revealed inflammation of common synovial sheath of flexor muscles. It is known from the patient’s anamnesis that he got a stab wound of finger a week ago. Which finger was most probably damaged?