Krok tests online
Base of tests
A 44 year old woman complains of general weakness, heart pain, significant increase of body weight. Objectively: moon face, hirsutism, AP is 165/100 mm Hg, height - 164 cm, weight - 103 kg; the fat is mostly accumulated on her neck, thoracic girdle, belly. What is the main pathogenetic mechanism of obesity?
Increased production of glucocorticoids
Reduced production of thyroid hormones
Increased insulin production
Reduced glucagon production
Increased mineralocorticoid production
Power inputs of a man were measured. In what state was this man if his power inputs were lower than basal metabolism?
Examination of a 55 year old woman revealed under the skin of submandibular area a movable slowly growing pasty formation with distinct borders 1,0x0,7 cm large. Histological examination revealed lipocytes that form segments of diffrent forms and sizes separated from each other by thin layers of connective tissue with vessels. What is the most probable diagnosis?
An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitement impulses with frequency of 60 times per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart structure:
A 45 year old man consulted a doctor about a plaque-like formation on his neck. Histological examination of a skin bi-optate revealed clusters of round and oval tumour cells with a narrow border of basophilic cytoplasm resembling of cells of basal epidermal layer. What tumour is it?
Basal cell carcinoma
In course of a conditional experiment the development of mesenchyma cells was completely inhibited. Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:
Smooth muscular tissue
Neural muscular tissue
Epidermal muscular tissue
Cardiac muscular tissue
Skeletal muscular tissue
A 60 year old patient has impaired perception of high-frequency sounds. These changes were caused by damage of the following auditory analyzer structures:
Main cochlea membrane near the oval window
Main cochlea membrane near the helicotrema
Middle ear muscles
Blood minute volume of a 30 year old woman at rest is 5 l/m. What blood volume is pumped through the pulmonary vessels per minute?
Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the pharynx of a diphtheria suspect revealed bacilli with volutine granules. What etiotropic drug should be chosen in this case?
Antidiphtheritic antitoxic serum
A man with a wound of his limb that had been suppurating for a long time died from intoxication. Autopsy revealed extreme emaciation, dehydration, brown atrophy of liver, myocardium, spleen and cross-striated muscles as well as renal amyloidosis. What diagnosis corresponds with the described presentations?
While studying maximally spiralized chromosomes of human karyotype the process of cell division was stopped in the following phase:
A concentrated solution of sodium chloride was intravenously injected to an animal. This caused decreased reabsorption of sodium ions in the renal tubules. It is the result of the following changes of hormonal secretion:
Reduction of atrial natriuretic factor
It was found out that some compounds, for instance fungi toxins and some antibiotics can inhibit activity of ENA-polymerase. What process will be disturbed in a cell in case of inhibition of this enzyme?
A culture of monkey cells (Vero) and a group of mouse sucklings were infected with an inoculum taken from a child with provisional diagnosis "enterovirus infection". There was no cytopathic effect on the cell culture but mouse sucklings died. What enteric viruses might have caused disease of this child?
Unclassified enteric viruses 68-71
If a man has an attack of bronchi-ospasm it is necessary to reduce the effect of vagus on smooth muscles of bronchi. What membrane cytoreceptors should be blocked for this purpose?
a- and 3-adrenoreceptors
There are several groups of molecular mechanisms playing important part in pathogenesis of insult to cells which contributes to the pathology development. What processes are stimulated by proteinic damage mechanisms?
Osmotic membrane distension
Life cycle of a cell includes the process of DNA autoreduplication. As a result of it monochromatid chromosomes turn into bichromatid ones. What period of cell cycle does this phenomenon fall into?
During starvation muscle proteins break up into free amino acids. These compounds will be the most probably involved into the following process:
Gluconeogenesis in liver
Gluconeogenesis in muscles
Synthesis of higher fatty acids
A pregnant woman was registered in an antenatal clinic and underwent complex examination for a number of infections. Blood serum contained IgM to the rubella virus. What is this result indicative of?
Of primary infection
Of a chronic process
The woman is healthy
Of exacerbation of a chronic disease
Of recurring infection with rubella virus
Ultramicroscopical examination of "dark"hepatocyte population in the cell cytoplasm detected a developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. What function has this organella in these cells?
Synthesis of blood plasma proteins
Calcium ion depositing
While performing an inguinal canal operation on account of hernia a surgeon damaged the canal’s contents. What exactly was damaged?
Lig. teres uteri
A patient who has been treated in a neural clinic and has been taking a sedative for a long time got the following complication: cough, rhinitis, epiphora. What drug caused these disturbances?
In order to accelerate healing of a radiation ulcer a vitamin drug was administered. What drug is it?
Researchers isolated 5 isoenzymic forms of lactate dehydrogenase from the human blood serum and studied their properties. What property indicates that the isoenzymic forms were isolated from the same enzyme?
Catalyzation of the same reaction
The same molecular weight
The same physicochemical properties
The same electrophoretic mobility
An aged man had raise of arterial pressure under a stress. It was caused by activation of:
Parasympathetic nucleus of vagus
Functions of thyroid gland
Functions of adrenal cortex
months after labour a woman had uterine hemorrhage. Gynaecological examination of uterine cavity revealed a dark-red tissue with multiple cavities resembling of a "sponge". Microscopic examination of a tumour revealed in blood lacunas atypic light epithelial Langhans cells and giant cells of syncyti-otrophoblast. What tumour is it?
Squamous cell nonkeratinous carcinoma
A patient suffering from chronic cardiac insufficiency was recommended to undergo a prophylactic course of treatment with a cardiological drug from the group of cardiac glycosides that is to be taken enterally. What drug was recommended?
A cerebral trauma caused increased ammonia generation. What amino acid participates in the excretion of ammonia from the cerebral tissue?
hours after tuberculine test (Mantoux test) a child had a papule 10 mm in diameter on the spot of tuberculine injection. What hypersensitivity mechanism underlies these changes?
Examination of a newborn boy’s genitalia revealed an urethral hiatus that opens on the undersite of his penis. What malformation is it?
A 17 year old boy fell seriously ill, the body temperature rose up to 38,5oC, there appeared cough, rhinitis, lacrimati-on, nasal discharges. What inflammation is it?
A 30 year old woman has face edemata. Examination revealed proteinuria (5,87 g/l), hypoproteinemia, dysproteinemia, hyperlipidemia. What condition is the set of these symptoms typical for?
Acute renal failure
Chronic renal failure
A patient has a decreased vasopressin synthesis that causes polyuria and as a result of it evident organism dehydratati-on. What is the mechanism of polyuria development?
Reduced tubular reabsorption of water
Reduced tubular reabsorption of Na ions
Reduced tubular reabsorption of protein
Reduced glucose reabsorption
Acceleration of glomerular filtration
An unconscious young man with signs of morphine poisoning entered admission office. His respiration is shallow and infrequent which is caused by inhibition of respiratory centre. What type of respiratory failure is it?
A patient is 44 years old. Laboratory examination of his blood revealed that content of proteins in plasma was 40 g/l. What influence will be exerted on the transcapillary water exchange?
Filtration will be increased, reabsorption - decreased
Both filtration and reabsorption will be increased
Both filtration and reabsorption will be decreased
Filtration will be decreased, reabsorption - increased
Exchange will stay unchanged
Examination of a man who had been working hard under higher temperature of the environment revealed abnormal quantity of blood plasma proteins. What phenomenon is the case?
A patient ill with thrombophlebitis of his lower limbs had chest pain, blood spitting, progressing respiratory insufficiency that led to his death. Autopsy diagnosed multiple lung infarctions. What is the most probable cause of their development?
Thromboembolism of pulmonary artery branches
Thrombosis of pulmonary artery branches
Thrombosis of bronchial arteries
Thromboembolism of bronchial arteries
Thrombosis of pulmonary veins
Two hours after an exam a student had a blood count done and it was revealed that he had leukocytosis without significant leukogram modifications. What is the most probable mechanism of leukocytosis development?
Redistribution of leukocytes in the organism
Deceleration of leukocyte lysis
Deceleration of leukocyte migration to the tissues
Leukopoiesis intensification and deceleration of leukocyte lysis
A patient is ill with diabetes melli-tus accompanied by hyperglycemia on an empty stomach (7,2 millimole/l). The hyperglycemia rate can be retrospectively estimated (over the last 4-8 weeks before the examination) on the ground of the rate of the following blood plasma protein:
C -reactive protein
In course of laparotomy a surgeon revealed gangrenous lesion of descending colon. It was caused by thrombosis of the following artery:
Superior mesenteric artery
A patient has low rate of magnesium ions that are necessary for affixion of ribosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that it causes disturbance of protein biosynthesis. At what stage is protein biosynthesis impaired?
Amino acid activation
A patient ill with neurodermatitis has been taking prednisolone for a long time. Examination revealed high rate of sugar in his blood. This complication is caused by the drug influence upon the following link of carbohydrate metabolism:
Intensification of glucose absorption in the bowels
Inhibition of glycogen synthesis
Activation of insulin decomposition
Labelled amino acids alanine and tryptophane were injected to a mouse in order to study localization of protein synthesis in its cells. The labelled amino acids will be accumulated near the following organellas:
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Inflammation of the tympanic cavity (purulent otitis media) was complicated by inflammation of mammillary process sockets. What wall of tympanic cavity did the pus penetrate into the sockets through?
A 62 year woman complains of frequent pain attacks in the area of her chest and backbone, rib fractures. Her doctor suspected myeloma (plasmocytoma). What of the following laboratory characteristics will be of the greatest diagnostic importance?
A patient underwent an operation on account of gall bladder excision that resulted in obstruction of Ca absorption through the bowels wall. What vitamin wil stimulate this process?
A patient complains of frequent diarrheas, especially after consumption of rich food, weight loss. Laboratory examination revealed steatorrhea; his feces were hypocholic. What might have caused such condition?
Obturation of biliary tracts
Inflammation of mucous membrane of small intestine
Lack of pancreatic lipase
Lack of pancreatic phospholipase
Examination of a patient with pustular skin lesions allowed to isolate a causative agent that forms in the blood agar roundish yellow middle-sized colonies surrounded by haemolysis zone. Smears from the colonies contain irregularshaped clusters of gram-positive cocci. The culture is oxidase- and catalasepositive, ferments mannitol and synthesizes plasmocoagulase. What causative agent was isolated?
Examination of coronary arteries revealed atherosclerotic calcified plaques closing vessel lumen by 1/3. The muscle has multiple whitish layers of connective tissue. What process was revealed in the myocardium?
Examination of an ovary specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosine revealed a follicle in which follicular epithelium consisted of 1-2 layers of cubic cells. There was also a bright red membrane around the ovocyte. What follicle is it?